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Objectives: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to systematically review, analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information on the current state of medical and surgical management and outcomes of epilepsy in LMICs. Materials and Methods: Systematic searches were conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, World Health Organization Global Index Medicus, African Journals Online, WOS, and Scopus, covering the period from the inception of the databases to August 18th, 2021, focusing on studies reporting management and outcomes of epilepsy in LMICs. Results: A total of 2298 unique studies were identified, of which, 48 were included (38035 cases). The mean age was 20.1 ± 19.26 years with a male predominance in 60.92% of cases. The type of seizure commonly reported in most of the studies was absence seizures (n = 8302, 21.82%); partial focal seizure (n = 3891, 10.23%); and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (n = 3545, 9.32%) which were the next most common types of seizures. Mesiotemporal epilepsy was less frequently reported (n = 87, 0.22%). Electroencephalogram was commonly used (n = 2516, 6.61%), followed by computed tomography scan (n = 1028, 2.70%), magnetic resonance imaging (n = 638, 1.67%), and video telemetry (n = 484, 1.27%) in the care of patients with seizures. Primary epilepsy was recorded in 582 patients (1.53%) whereas secondary epilepsy was present in 333 patients (0.87%). Carbamazepine was the most used anti-epileptic drug (n = 2121, 5.57%). Surgical treatment was required for 465 (1.22%) patients. Conclusion: In LMICs, epilepsy is underreported. There is still a lack of adequate tools for the diagnosis of primary or secondary epilepsy as well as adequate access to medical management of those reported.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice

Publication Date





8 - 15