Congenital lung lesions: classification and concordance of radiological appearance and surgical pathology.
Farrugia MK., Raza SA., Gould S., Lakhoo K.
Congenital lung lesions are diagnosed antenatally in the majority of cases. Postnatal management includes chest radiography and CT-scanning, followed by either surgical resection or CT surveillance. Pre-operatively, lesions are often "labelled" as CCAM (and the Stocker classification incorrectly applied), sequestration, or lobar emphysema, and their frequent "hybrid" nature sometimes missed. The aim of our study was to correlate antenatal and postnatal radiological diagnoses and classification of congenital lung lesions with surgical and pathological outcome. Twenty-six consecutive cases of antenatally-diagnosed cystic lung lesions managed at our centre between January 2003 and April 2007 were reviewed. Diagnoses were: cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAM) in 13 cases (50.0%), three bronchopulmonary sequestrations (11.5%), "hybrid" lesions in eight cases (30.8%), one isolated lobar emphysema (3.8%) and a normal lung segment with anomalous systemic supply (3.8%). Overall concordance rate between prenatal ultrasound and resection pathology was 61.5%, whereas CT findings correlated with pathology in 65.4% of cases. Incorrect radiological classification resulted in one morbidity, when an attempted thoracoscopic resection of a presumed CCAM had to be converted to an open procedure due to bleeding from an unsuspected anomalous vessel. The common embryological origin of these lesions, and the need for standardisation of reporting is discussed. We propose that lesions should be classified anatomically according to their nature, arterial supply and venous drainage in order to reduce discrepancies between radiological, intra-operative and pathological reporting.